top of page

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)



  • Acute stress disorder

  • Adult victim of non-domestic physical abuse

  • Adult victim of non-domestic sexual abuse

  • Adult victim of physical abuse

  • Adult victim of sexual abuse

  • Borderline personality disorder

  • Child victim of physical abuse

  • Posttraumatic stress disorder




  • Reduce the negative impact that the traumatic event has had on many aspects of life and return to the pre-trauma level of functioning.

  • Develop and implement effective coping skills to carry out normal responsibilities and participate constructively in relationships.

  • Recall the traumatic event without becoming overwhelmed with negative thoughts, feelings, or urges.

  • Terminate the destructive behaviors that serve to maintain escape and denial while implementing behaviors that promote healing, acceptance of the past events, and responsible living.


Behavioral Definitions


  • Exposure to actual or threatened death or serious injury that resulted in an intense emotional response of fear, helplessness, or horror.

  • Intrusive, distressing thoughts or images that recall the traumatic event.

  • Disturbing dreams associated with the traumatic event.

  • A sense that the event is reoccurring, as in illusions or flashbacks.

  • Intense distress when exposed to reminders of the traumatic event.

  • Physiological reactivity when exposed to internal or external cues that symbolize the traumatic event.

  • Avoidance of thoughts, feelings, or conversations about the traumatic event.

  • Avoidance of activity, places, or people associated with the traumatic event.

  • Inability to recall some important aspect of the traumatic event.

  • Lack of interest and participation in significant activities.

  • A sense of detachment from others.

  • Inability to experience the full range of emotions, including love.

  • A pessimistic, fatalistic attitude regarding the future.

  • Sleep disturbance.

  • Irritability.

  • Lack of concentration.

  • Hypervigilance.

  • Exaggerated startle response.

  • Sad or guilty affect and other signs of depression.

  • Alcohol and/or drug abuse.

  • Suicidal thoughts.

  • A pattern of interpersonal conflict, especially in intimate relationships.

  • Verbally and/or physically violent threats of behavior.

  • Inability to maintain employment due to supervisor/coworker conflict of anxiety symptoms.

  • Symptoms have been present for more than 1 month



  • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

  • Dissociative Identity Disorder

  • Depersonalization Disorder

  • Dissociative Disorder NOS

  • Physical Abuse of Child, Victim

  • Physical Abuse of Adult, Victim

  • Sexual Abuse of Child, Victim

  • Sexual Abuse of Adult, Victim

  • Acute Stress Disorder

  • Polysubstance Dependence

  • Alcohol Abuse

  • Alcohol Dependence

  • Cannabis Dependence

  • Cocaine Dependence

  • Opioid Dependence

  • Major Depressive Disorder

  • Borderline Personality Disorder

  • Personality Disorder NOS

Effects of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Here's a breakdown of some of the key effects of PTSD:

Types of PTSD Symptoms:

PTSD symptoms are generally grouped into four main categories:

Intrusion: Reliving the traumatic event through unwanted memories, flashbacks, or nightmares. These can be very vivid and distressing.

Avoidance: Avoiding reminders of the trauma, such as people, places, situations, or conversations that trigger memories of the event. This can lead to social isolation and difficulty functioning in daily life.

Negative Alterations in Cognitions and Mood: Difficulty remembering important aspects of the trauma, negative thoughts about oneself or the world, feelings of hopelessness, persistent fear, anger, guilt, or shame, and difficulty experiencing positive emotions.

Arousal and Reactivity: Feeling constantly on edge, hypervigilance, easily startled, difficulty sleeping, and problems concentrating.

How does Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) affect your life?

Here are some ways in which PTSD can affect individuals:

Mental Health: Individuals with PTSD may also experience hypervigilance, exaggerated startle responses, difficulty concentrating, and negative changes in mood and cognition. 

Physical Health: The chronic stress associated with PTSD can weaken the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to illness and exacerbating existing health conditions.

Social Relationships: PTSD can strain relationships with family members, friends, and romantic partners. Individuals with PTSD may have difficulty trusting others, communicating effectively, and maintaining close connections. 

Work and Academic Functioning: PTSD can interfere with work or academic performance, affecting productivity, concentration, and attendance. 

Substance Abuse and Self-Medication: Some individuals with PTSD may turn to alcohol, drugs, or other substances as a way to cope with their symptoms and alleviate emotional distress. 

Quality of Life: PTSD can significantly diminish overall quality of life, impairing functioning in various domains and causing distress and impairment that can persist for years if left untreated. 

It's important to note that while PTSD can have significant and far-reaching effects, effective treatments are available, including therapy (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy) and medication. 

bottom of page